Articles, Blog

Back-Button Focus: Why EVERYONE should use that AF-On autofocus button

October 24, 2019


Hi, I’m Tony Northrup and for chapter 4 of
my book Stunning Digital Photography, my daughter, Chelsea and I are out at a baseball diamond to demonstrate
why you should learn to use back button focus.
Back button focus is a technique that stops your camera from auto focusing
when you push that shutter button halfway. Normally you push the shutter button halfway, your
camera autofocuses and then when it focuses you push it all the way to take a
picture. And that’s awfully convenient especially if you don’t know how to use
a camera. But if you separate the focusing and the picture taking, it opens up a
whole new world of possibilities and allows you to take pictures so much faster. And one of the best examples of when to use this is sports photography. But it’s also terribly
useful for night photography, portraits, wildlife,
weddings candid shots. Just about anything you might
do, back button focus can make it better. So first I’m
gonna show you just how much better by taking a couple of shots my daughter
here. Now, she’s batting and when she’s at home plate
I like to use focus recompose so I can put hervright at the edge of the frame and
use that rule of space to leave plenty of room in front of her. But when she’s running down the baseline,
my camera’s auto focusing system needs all the help it can get to keep up with her. So, in other words when she’s batting, I want
to use single focusing, known as one shot for Canon cameras or
AF-S for just about anything else. And then when she is running I want to use continuous
focusing, AFC or a just AI servo on Canon cameras. And it would be a little
tough to switch modes while I’m trying to take
pictures because I don’t know when she’s gonna hit
the ball, right, but as soon as she does I’d have to switch modes and that could take a
little bit. So I’ll demonstrate taking pictures without using back button focus first. Nice one, Mad. So there you can see, I did manage to switch from single focusing to continuous focusing in a couple shots before she got to first base, but I’m also really practiced
with my camera. If you weren’t quite so good at switching modes
it would take you even longer. But with back button focusing I won’t
have to switch modes cause I’ll leave my camera in continuous focusing and when I want to do focus recompose I
just hold down the AF-On button or whatever but I’ve
assigned to use back button focus and I’ll hold it down until the focus is on her on the mound and I can recompose and not worry about the camera refocusing.
Then when she starts running I’ll just hold it down and keep the focusing point on her. Because it’s already in continues focusing mode, there’s no need to change modes. So let’s see how many shots I get using back button focus. Great, awesome. So you can see there was almost no delay
there. All I had to do was to put the focusing point on her and then
hold down that back button focus. It took me less than a second and that gave me 10 times more shots of her running down the baseline. So now
that I’ve sold you on the usefulness of back button focus, how do you actually
get it set up? And unfortunately it’s different for every single camera. All I can do is tell
you to search for the model number of your camera and
the phrase “back button focus” in, say, Google. So you might say “Canon
70D back button focus” and you’ll find somebody has nicely
provide instructions for you. In general, it can be a one step process or a multi-step
process. Usually you have to find the setting in your camera that turns off autofocusing when you push the shutter
button halfway down. Then if your camera doesn’t have a dedicated AF-ON button, you need to assign autofocusing to one of
the buttons on the back of the camera. Those two steps are enough
to allow anybody to use back button autofocus. It’s going to take some
practice though. You’ll need to use it for a couple days
until the muscle memory kicks in and you learn to automatically focus using that back button. And until you get to that point, you might miss a few
shots, so I encourage you to set it up and then practice practice practice. If
you ever need to switch back to your traditional focusing system, just
put that camera over in the green mode or fully automatic mode and usually the
camera will override all of your existing settings. If you like this video please
subscribe and click like and for lots more instructional
videos like this check out chapter four of my book Stunning Digital Photography. which has more than seven hours of video. You can get it at sdp.io/store or at Amazon. If you have any questions
please write a comment down below. Thanks!

100 Comments

  • Reply Tony & Chelsea Northrup April 21, 2017 at 6:56 pm

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  • Reply Atharva Vaidya March 14, 2018 at 5:56 am

    +Tony & Chelsea Northrup 1 million soon Tony!! ๐Ÿ”ฅโค๏ธ Been there since 50k followers (which isn't long ago cuz you're skyrocketing ๐Ÿ”ฅ)

  • Reply Andrew Sargent March 16, 2018 at 2:11 pm

    So, basically this does the same as AI-Servo on Canon cameras?

  • Reply Tom Pajak March 16, 2018 at 7:34 pm

    How is this better than 3D tracking focus?

  • Reply Essentially This March 22, 2018 at 11:40 am

    Lol it sounds like Chelsea is your daughter (in your introduction)..

  • Reply Brian Ward March 22, 2018 at 11:45 pm

    Thanks for the tutorial, Tony! I'll have to give it a try with my 7D.

  • Reply Ian Jack March 27, 2018 at 5:04 pm

    In the example of your daughter playing base ball I don't understand why you don't leave the camera in AI servo. Then it would focus accurately whether she was batting or running.

  • Reply Graham Cowan March 28, 2018 at 4:19 pm

    I love BBF for everything even portraits ๐Ÿ˜

  • Reply dkmi March 31, 2018 at 12:47 am

    On my camera, I put it in continuous focus mode and use a focus hold button on the back when I don't want it refocusing. That seems to be the opposite of what he's doing here.

  • Reply Henric Oscarsson April 3, 2018 at 2:00 pm

    I just recently started testing the back button focus after using front button focus for 20 years (professionally I might ad). Maybe it's because I'm not that used to it, but for me the front button feels alot faster, more accurate and more safe. Safe in the sense that you can't press the wrong button. Using the back focus button, there's more than one option and the statistics of failure is therefore higher. So, front button for me.

  • Reply Tosten April 5, 2018 at 12:01 am

    Great insight. I'll try it. I happened upon this site too and it has another good overview on this subject. He lays it out a bit better. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FzqQskGoURE

  • Reply Hugo April 9, 2018 at 9:40 pm

    Doubt, with the Back Button activated at what moment does the metering mode engages? Is it wen I push back button focus or on the first level of the shutter button?

  • Reply Vince Drew April 11, 2018 at 3:12 pm

    Tony & Chelsea, Love you guys โ™ฅ๏ธ Your vids are helpful and inspiring. Live Long and Prosper.

  • Reply Kala Langston May 2, 2018 at 4:01 am

    which lens would you recommend for use at sporting events and dance recitals?

  • Reply Ian Taylor Photography May 11, 2018 at 8:39 am

    Whatever you're used to.

  • Reply Tom Martin May 21, 2018 at 1:06 am

    Famous bird photographer Art Morris (Birds as Art) gives the following reasons why he no longer uses Back Button Focus. Art was previously a promoter of BBF.

    "I stick with shutter button AF nearly full time. Why?

    1-For flight and action photography and in all situation where you can get an AF point exactly where you want it on the subject (almost always that means on the same plane as the subjectโ€™s eye โ€ฆ) I find it a lot easier to do one thing (press the shutter button) than it is to do two things (press whichever rear button that you use to focus and then have to press the shutter button to make the image).
    2- Some folks using rear focus develop thumb or wrist problems from having to โ€œreach around the cornerโ€ to get to the AF-On button. That is why I used (and still use on occasion) the Star button for rear focus.
    3- All AF points and all AF Area Selection modes are now available at f/8 with both camera bodies that I use, the Canon EOS 5D Mark IV and the Canon EOS-1D X Mark II. In most situations that makes it a lot easier to get an AF point exactly where you want it on the subject.
    4- On all three of my camera bodies, I have assigned AF lock [AF Off] to the AF-On button. So if I am using shutter button AI Servo AF โ€” as I now do 98% of the time โ€” and need to focus on a subject in the corner of the frame, I acquire focus with the shutter button and then reach around the corner and press and hold the AF-On button. This locks the focus and essentially gives me the advantages of using rear focus (without ever having to change any of my settings). Do understand that this technique works best with your rig on a tripod or at least when your gear is well-supported by a railing or as a result of your using the knee-pod technique. If you are straight out hand holding there is a risk that even your tiniest movement will throw off the focus. The same of course is true whenever you are using either One-Shot AF or rear button focus โ€ฆ
    So yes, I now believe that shutter button AF is better than rear button AF at least 99% of the time ๐Ÿ™‚
    with love, artie"

  • Reply Martti Suomivuori May 25, 2018 at 5:26 am

    There is a lot to learn about AF and AE. The Northrups so a great job in tutorials.

  • Reply Robert Lawton May 25, 2018 at 11:25 pm

    C1 One shot
    C2 Auto focus

    Left finger makes the switch; right finger hits the shutter release. Super simple. I'll typically set the shutter speed on C1 to allow for a bit of motion blur and C2 to freeze the action. Ya can't do that just playing with the back focus button.

  • Reply Forster Stewart May 26, 2018 at 5:19 pm

    I use my back button focus to stop auto focus. Leaving my forefinger on shutter release to start focus and release my shutter. Using my thumb to stop focus recompose and continue shooting leaving my thumb free to move or adjust my focus point with my multi control dial/joystik on my 7d mii,5dsr or 1dx mii.

  • Reply Forster Stewart May 26, 2018 at 5:27 pm

    Set you depth of field preview switch to preform ai servo for instant tracking of subject.

  • Reply J Smith May 27, 2018 at 3:30 pm

    Or you could assign depth of field button to switch between one shot and ai servo. Wouldnโ€™t that be the same?

  • Reply Jesse King May 29, 2018 at 1:13 pm

    Luckily with Sony camera's focusing points covering the whole screen, sony users don't have to use this technique…

  • Reply Fifi & BB June 2, 2018 at 1:52 pm

    I have seen so many videos on this but I finally understand now. THANK YOU!!!

  • Reply Frank Smith June 2, 2018 at 3:07 pm

    Hi thanks for this.

  • Reply dowz0r June 4, 2018 at 12:08 pm

    Why is there a every so slight metallic reverb in the audio? Is this dude an alien?

  • Reply Vivian Music June 5, 2018 at 5:53 am

    Spraying and praying. Bad practice.

  • Reply Juan Pablo Castillo Guzman June 8, 2018 at 7:22 pm

    Ok. This is good. But what about when you are using the grip???

  • Reply Dedskin Prodcer/DJ June 14, 2018 at 8:22 pm

    there is no need for Subscribing , the moment you leave YT rolling , its gonna end up on these channels , basically like our Grandpas looked at those Cheese commercials on TV , thinking its a Show , same goes for us , thinking that this is YT channel about photography , it is not , imagine turntable with Camera gear on it , price tag on the left side , number on the right , call NOW get 50% off , buy 2 you get 3. Taht is what it is

  • Reply Doctor Rennie June 17, 2018 at 6:12 am

    Thanks for explaining this so well Tony.

  • Reply Default Name June 22, 2018 at 11:28 pm

    I still dont get it lol

  • Reply Charles Hammond June 24, 2018 at 8:25 pm

    I need some help setting this up when using my Canon 80D for shooting birds. There's a long list of menu items for autofocus with this camera, and I'm getting a lot of blurry shots with birds in flight.

  • Reply Bryce New June 29, 2018 at 12:37 pm

    Thanks Tony (& Chelsea)! VERY cool to be able to learn this for free, in a video!!

  • Reply Gravity Media Productions July 2, 2018 at 9:57 am

    There's a way you said something in this video that makes me think you're a "Moneyball" movie fan – which is awesome. Am I right?

  • Reply Kailash Chouhan July 12, 2018 at 7:46 am

    great sir. thankes

  • Reply Rtee723 July 15, 2018 at 1:23 am

    obviously cold weather…I call child abuse/YouTube slave labor…SHAME "ring bell"

  • Reply Leon Daniels July 15, 2018 at 6:06 am

    Does not work correctly on a Sony A6000

  • Reply Maurice Phoenix July 16, 2018 at 11:23 am

    I can't get this done. Hope Tony will help me with this๐Ÿ˜Š did try to set up with my A7II. Using spot metering, flexible spot AF. When I do Fokus with BBF. And do the recompose it seems the mettering act up. However when I do it without the BBF. Using the normal half press to Fokus and recompose it work perfectly

  • Reply esnevip July 25, 2018 at 3:41 am

    I find it not compatible with glasses.

  • Reply Michelle Humphrey July 26, 2018 at 4:32 am

    What lens are you using in this video?

  • Reply Don Jones August 1, 2018 at 1:37 am

    Once the bb is depressed and your locked on. Does it go back to normal. And if you have it set up and you go to auto as you said. Does everything go back to the way it was. And would you have to re do it all over again?

  • Reply magic nala August 13, 2018 at 10:38 am

    Thanks

  • Reply Gabriel Valdez August 13, 2018 at 9:56 pm

    Great video

  • Reply Charity August 16, 2018 at 2:38 pm

    I can see the merits in this, but what about the * button (exposure lock) it replaces? (Still using the 5D mk 1)

  • Reply Jaco van Lith August 19, 2018 at 1:48 pm

    Those were the days.
    Just press the button of the Speed Graphic
    and one great photograph is made of Babe Ruth.
    No salvo of tens of shots, no back-button focus .

  • Reply Jan-Peter Mohwinkel August 20, 2018 at 9:32 am

    Why should I change from single to continous focus? Just leave it on continous and that problem is solved

  • Reply Gosh2Bosh August 21, 2018 at 10:52 pm

    It sounds like you did this video in a sewer. What the hell is up with the weird echo?

  • Reply Luis Argueta September 2, 2018 at 4:30 am

    Whoa! Tony beard

  • Reply Sangy September 3, 2018 at 3:41 pm

    Can someone explain to a pleb like me what is the difference between zone focusing and back button focusing?

  • Reply ShawN shawN September 18, 2018 at 7:19 am

    Really bizarre sound echo here. Did you dub in a small room later?

  • Reply TheXtremePhotos September 18, 2018 at 8:38 pm

    Do you know when canon 7dmark iii itโ€™s going to be at the markets?

  • Reply Stacy Morin September 23, 2018 at 2:01 am

    So if using BBF, should I keep my Nikon D7000 on AF-Auto or AF-S or AF-C. I always get confused and have struggled using BBF. Thanks!

  • Reply DuvShack October 1, 2018 at 4:57 pm

    When using BBF, most folks have AF-C selected. Whatโ€™s focus area do you have selected? Iโ€™ve been teetering between 3D and single.

  • Reply Kay Brown October 10, 2018 at 1:15 am

    I've had a refurbished Canon 70D for about 2 years and have nothing but problems with focusing compared to my Pentax K5. Many people have had the same issues with the same model of camera, but unfortunately, I didn't find out that information until AFTER I bought the Canon 70d. I can easily back focus with my Pentax and perform some advanced features of my Pentax and come out with some nice images. They aren't tack sharp, but sharper than anything my Canon has ever produced. Never again. My next camera will either be a full frame Pentax, Olympus, or Sony.

  • Reply carus dignitas October 17, 2018 at 5:14 pm

    Here's your comment. And I left a like. Thanks for reminding of this button;)

  • Reply hayden tweedley November 2, 2018 at 10:58 am

    Reverb yo

  • Reply johan bauwens November 4, 2018 at 1:21 pm

    I used it for a while but I stopped using it, it's not my thing.

  • Reply LordArioh November 11, 2018 at 10:14 pm

    on my 80D when I want I just tap the screen and get focus and shot without recomposing. continuous focus bursts perfectly on moving Shinkansen full speed, 10 out of 10 in sharp focus. To get more shots you need higher burst rate cuz Shinkansen moves at 320km/h. on a tripod I focus manually. maybe I try this someday.

  • Reply rbaleksandar December 4, 2018 at 9:01 pm

    I really didn't like the "Flip it to automatic and it will usually remove all of your settings" part. Hope the Canon 80D doesn't do that…

  • Reply Matt L December 17, 2018 at 2:51 am

    I was waiting for the ball to hit him. Or maybe it did and he edited it out ๐Ÿค”

  • Reply James Golden December 19, 2018 at 5:19 am

    Thank you dearly ๐Ÿ™

  • Reply Rial Mondal January 4, 2019 at 10:25 pm

    Can't you just use ai-focus instead? If you use ai-focus, you can recompose like you normally would in single-shot af, and track the subject like you would with continuous

  • Reply migkiller175 January 16, 2019 at 7:03 pm

    Is there a way to apply that to a Fuji X-t20?

  • Reply Dennis Maher February 7, 2019 at 4:14 pm

    Still donโ€™t understand a word he said, I know he is only pressing one of two buttons, But which one does he press and which on does he let go?

  • Reply dfg297lpopdirk February 7, 2019 at 10:16 pm

    if your in continuous focus wether she is running or still you get the same result why complicate it ??

  • Reply Chris Taylor February 12, 2019 at 12:46 am

    I have an ancient canon t1i and I have been using back button focus since a couple months after I got it…

  • Reply hitmhard March 4, 2019 at 2:25 pm

    Why not use AI servo the whole time??

  • Reply Rodel Sangalang March 5, 2019 at 4:09 pm

    Tony/Chelsea: do you think BBF is still necessary with newer technologies like AF-lock, eye AF, or face detection? Love your vids and books BTW! ๐Ÿ™๐Ÿฝ.

  • Reply studio7 March 9, 2019 at 3:38 pm

    Superb…..

  • Reply Zoran Randjelovic March 14, 2019 at 6:16 pm

    I am confused :/

  • Reply Thomas Nichol March 17, 2019 at 5:39 pm

    Does the Canon AI – Focus function do the same thing? That's meant to switch from on shot to servo.

  • Reply Mon legaspi March 19, 2019 at 1:06 pm

    Nice, thank you sir for this info ๐Ÿ‘ – im a beginner photographer

  • Reply Daktari March 20, 2019 at 4:19 pm

    WHAT!!!!! Why was I never told about this!!! I have Read Books on focusing, I have them right now, and This is the first time Iโ€™ve heard about the back focus button. Iโ€™m kinda pissed right now. Lolo.

  • Reply Iain Nicholl March 22, 2019 at 8:13 pm

    No.

  • Reply NorthernOtyg March 30, 2019 at 12:29 am

    I still like the regular shutter focus, and since it takes me about 0.5 seconds to switch to continuous on my Fuji, there's no reason personally to use back-button focus. I'll be in single mode usually, with normal shutter focus, half hold to recompose, and if I need continuous mode, I just flick a hardware switch without looking and it's done.

  • Reply Christopher Banning March 30, 2019 at 8:44 pm

    Is back focusing needed for sony now days

  • Reply Falkwings April 1, 2019 at 12:39 am

    Thank you for this video, it is so freaking useful!

  • Reply 1455ash April 1, 2019 at 10:03 pm

    Can someone explain to me what is the difference between this method and just leaving it in continuous focus and using shutter button focus?

  • Reply Sandro Losi April 2, 2019 at 10:48 am

    Hi Tony & Chelsea! I found this tutorial only today and found it very interesting … I have one question : i have a Canon 6D mk2. Do you think that AF-C on my camera is reliable enough to be used as shown in your video? Or is better to switch between AF-S and AF-C depending on the subject? I had previosuly a fuji xt1, and i remember that the AF-C was always hunting for focus if pointed at a stationary subject …

    Thanks

  • Reply jeffisso April 6, 2019 at 9:35 pm

    Tony this was a fantastic demonstration of back button focus and why you should use it. I'm kind of new to this and this was so helpful!!

  • Reply Bart April 9, 2019 at 9:41 am

    You can hold the DOF button to switch quickly as well

  • Reply Thismustbetheplacee April 13, 2019 at 11:35 am

    Hi Tony – do you usually shoot in shutter or aperture mode when using back button focus to freeze moving subjects?

  • Reply mh76 April 13, 2019 at 8:01 pm

    It's so big!

    The possibility! The possibilities are so big with back button focus!

  • Reply Phoenix Alitas April 27, 2019 at 3:26 am

    what video camera did you use for this video?

  • Reply yagna reddy June 24, 2019 at 6:55 am

    sorry, first 40 seconds i watched the game.

  • Reply Gunnar Surly July 1, 2019 at 2:24 am

    One question I have encountered – if using "back button focus", AND a "cable release"; will the camera (D7200) still focus in this configuration?

  • Reply Jonathan Davies July 9, 2019 at 7:00 am

    Northrup's, do you still recommend this with with more recent mirrorless AF improvements, both in AF area and tracking? I note this video is 4 year old now

  • Reply Mikat July 10, 2019 at 11:20 am

    1:33 it's called the button on the front and it's GREAT for switching between ai servo and one shot

  • Reply Angelo Cella July 11, 2019 at 8:59 am

    0:51 ๐Ÿ˜›

  • Reply SD July 21, 2019 at 9:29 am

    Why not make sure that you are truly saved by Jesus Christ and practice this way.
    Remorsefully confess with your heart your sins to Jesus Christ who is God and tell Him that you right now are repenting of your sins and you want to be born again of the Spirit from above. Tell Jesus that you are remorsefully sorry for breaking His commandments and that you are begging for forgiveness from Him. Allow His blood from the cross to wash away your sins. After this is done with your heart successfully the Holy Spirit will come to live within you and He will rebuild you from the inside out.

    Look for signs that you are living righteously. Things like spreading the good news from Jesus, getting other people saved, a craving for the word of God, reading the Bible, etcโ€ฆ These things are known as a calling and fruit bearing. If you're not bearing fruit then keep doing it. Sometimes it takes time to get saved. Read Matthew chapter 13 from the King James Bible. God bless!!!

  • Reply Backwoods Films July 22, 2019 at 6:54 pm

    Thanks for the info! I have SO much to learn about photography…

  • Reply Scott Davis July 22, 2019 at 11:03 pm

    I have a canon 70D with a Sigma 150-600mm contemporary telephoto lens, the lens has 3 focusing range settings, 2.8 to 10meters, 10 meters to infinity and full range focus. The first 2 ranges are really quick in focusing, the full range takes longer to lock on. Which of these ranges do you suggest for back button focusing and AI Servo? Thanks

  • Reply ffpphotography 35 July 24, 2019 at 5:53 pm

    To make it work , do you then press the back button and shutter button simultaneously?

  • Reply Ken Carter August 8, 2019 at 6:34 pm

    Hi,can you tell me if I have to put the camera into Auto Focus settings, the dial at the top to Auto etc,I have the D7200.many thanks for
    your advice, Ken.

  • Reply Paul met Debbie August 15, 2019 at 8:50 am

    Well it all depends on the situation. If the stationary situation is shorter than the moving one, bbaf is only more trouble because it forces you to hold another button for longer. In most situations it's better to just set the camera to continuous autofocus and program the back button to focus off or focus hold.

  • Reply Jean-Pierre Zapata September 2, 2019 at 5:24 pm

    i don't understand why a half click on the shutter button couldn't also be used for BOTH single shot (half press. let go. recompose. full press to take photo, as well as continuous (simply hold the half click shutter until you full press to take the photo). Sure, you could map it to the back button, but isn't the concept the same? Someone needs to explain this to me.

  • Reply Pew Pew Dave September 10, 2019 at 3:21 pm

    I have a canon sl2. What drive mode should I use? AI Servo?

  • Reply Mediocre Tutorials and Reviews September 18, 2019 at 2:06 am

    i watched this tutorial 5 times two years ago and didn't get it. I'm watching it again on 9/17/19 and I finally get it. This video assumes that you already know what the hell back button auto focus is – and the fact that it doesn't come standard on camera's. You have to enable it by turning off the autofocus on the shutter button!

  • Reply Avital P. October 10, 2019 at 2:10 pm

    Thank you for this short and fast-simple explanations! Sort of JUST DO IT! ๐Ÿ˜„ LOL

  • Reply Ivan Brehmer October 18, 2019 at 2:12 am

    I been reading about BBF ing and set up my Nikon D7000 for the AE_L/AF_L button. My left eye is my master eye (and wear glasses) and I view the view finder with left eye; which, I find very difficult. I've not seen any comments on this. Do other people all use their right eyes? Seems the cameras are set up tse the right eye. i have a hard time even looking through view finder with right eye. Any comments or suggestions welcome…..

  • Reply graceular123 October 22, 2019 at 3:37 pm

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    ุดู€ุจู€ุงุจ๐Ÿ™‹โ€โ™‚๏ธ ุตู€ุงุฑ ู„ู€ูŠ ุจู€ู€ุดู€ู€ูˆู ูƒู€ู€ุซู€ู€ูŠู€ู€ุฑ ู…ู€ู† ุงู„ู€ู€ูƒู€ู€ูˆู…ู€ู€ู†ู€ู€ุชู€ู€ุงุช ุนู€ู† ุตู€ู€ุบู€ู€ุฑ ุงู„ู€ู€ู‚ู€ู€ุถู€ู€ูŠู€ู€ุจ ูˆุณู€ุฑุนู€ุฉ ุงู„ู€ู‚ู€ุฐู
    ูˆุฃุญู€ุจ ุฃู‚ู€ู€ูˆู„ู€ู€ูƒู€ู€ู… ุจู€ู…ู€ุนู€ู„ู€ูˆู…ู€ุฉ ู…ู€ู€ูู€ู€ูŠู€ู€ุฏุฉ๐Ÿ˜‰ ุฃู†ู€ู€ูŠ ุญู€ุตู€ู„ู€ุช ุนู€ู€ู„ู€ู€ู‰ ูˆุตู€ู€ูู€ู€ุฉ ุฑู‡ู€ู€ูŠู€ู€ุจู€ู€ุฉ ู…ู€ู€ู† ุงู„ู€ู€ุฏูƒู€ู€ุชู€ู€ูˆุฑ๐Ÿ‘จโ€โš•๏ธ ุงู„ู€ู„ู€ูŠ ุจู€ู€ูŠู€ู€ุชู€ู€ูˆุงุตู€ู€ู„ ู…ู€ู€ุนู€ู€ุงู‡ ูƒู€ุซู€ูŠู€ุฑ ู…ู€ู† ุงู„ู€ู†ู€ุงุณ
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